Monday, 27 August 2018

Alternative modes of assessment and evaluation of student learning for 21st Century Education

Assessment and evaluation of student learning is an integral component of the learning process. Assessment can either be formative or summative. Formative assessment is usually done throughout the course to allow the teacher to monitor the learning progress and use valuable feedback to either change the way teaching is being done to promote better understanding and to also give the student feedback on his or her progress to allow the student to identify areas where he or she needs to input more effort. On the other hand, summative assessment is a way to measure and evaluate the students learning at the end through a kind of a more formal and structured activity such as written examinations or a project. In all cases, the main objective of summative and formative evaluations is to ensure that intended learning outcomes are met. It is therefore important to define clear assessment criteria for each intended learning outcome.

In many elitist and competitive systems, supervised closed book examinations have long been seen as the preferred choice for student assessment and evaluation. It was perceived as the best way to ensure that the assessment processes were reliable, authentic and to maintain the integrity of the competition. Over the years the model has been widely implemented and accepted at all levels of the education systems throughout the globe. However, researchers and practitioners have started since some time to question the validity and relevance of such examinations, that normally rely mainly on memorization abilities of learners and have a limited range of application, in terms of what we can really measure out of them. With the proliferation of technologies and the internet, does it still make sense to rely on the ability of individuals to memorize and recall information in a closed-book examinations setting that lasts a few hours? Is it sufficient to assess in such a span of time about the intended learning outcomes and the learning that took place over one year? Is it a reliable way to measure whether the students have the necessary skills to apply their knowledge in the real world and in authentic situations?

While many developed countries and higher education institutions of the North have started to gradually move away from the traditional systems of evaluation and assessment, we note that developing countries are still lagging behind and in many cases, we have witnessed the consolidation of such systems. On one hand people would be talking about 21st Century Education while on the other hand, in the name of quality assurance, decision makers and school leaders would prefer to play the safe way by maintaining supervised closed book examinations. When we refer to 21st Century education, it is often pointing to learning in a context driven by technology and amidst an unrivalled abundance of all sorts of information at your fingertip.

When you could get to know the Capital of any country or the date a particular President of the United States died within seconds on the Internet, we need to ask ourselves, about the relevance or pertinence to ask a kid or a University student to remember this information because they might come out in an examination? Is it not wiser in the current era that we assess their ability to use the right tool to find such information when the question is being put to them? This further reminds me of a technique often used by some teachers of General Paper subject. They would dictate their students different sorts of essays related to themes normally to be covered or that may be highly probable to come out for the exams. Students would be expected to memorize these essays to have a better chance to perform in the exams.

21st Century Education is not only about developing a certain expertise of a subject matter but also characterized as the acquisition of other skills known as soft skills such as the ability to communicate better, to apply the knowledge acquired and to develop the capability to engage into reflexive practices. In the past, the teacher was seen as the one who knows it all. The content was at the center of the teaching and learning process. This is no longer true in the information and knowledge age. It is therefore obvious that the teaching methods and assessment instruments that we devise are relevant to that specific context. If the way we teach changes, then the way to assess has to evolve accordingly. Let us have a look of a few alternatives to the standard supervised closed book examinations.
Project Work

Project work has the merit to engage students into inquiry-based learning combining at the same time acquisition of information, application of knowledge and to reflect on one’s own learning through a presentation of the work done, or through the write-up of a report. Project work can be done individually or in teams and occurs over an extended period of time. At the end of the project, an artefact is normally produced which is assessed based on pre-defined criteria.

Open book exams

Open book exams can be considered as the most direct alternative to closed-book examinations as such exams are often conducted under the same parameters as closed book examinations. However they are very much different in substance, as the majority if not all of the questions set would not rely on memorization but rather would test problem-solving abilities of the student. They could be given a complex question or case-studies such as the need to advise a client on a particular legal issue, and they are allowed to consult existing laws, previous cases and other relevant documents.

Formative Assessment - Reflective Journals, Peer Assessment and Tutor Feedback

Role plays, scenarios and simulations are considered as experiential learning. Modern teaching techniques also refer to these techniques as gamification or games-based learning. They learn through interaction within a predefined context in an environment which is recreated to provide a simulation of a real-world situation where learning takes place as they walk through the process at different stages. This is called active learning and are best assessed through formative assessment techniques such as keeping a reflective journal, tutor feedback or peer-assessment. An example is to setup a mock Court room where Bar students practice as the Defence and Prosecution to argue a case. They can be assessed by their peers and their tutor as well.

Practical Work in Authentic Settings

There are two ways to achieve practical work in authentic settings. The first one can take place for example in a computer lab where students develop a piece of software to solve a real problem. These types of assessment can take the form of hackathons where teams are formed and work on a specific identified problem theme with the aim to win the contest. Practical work in authentic settings also take the form of a more formal placement in a work environment where they are assessed on different elements and skills that are expected from them.  Such concept is often called work-based learning and the aim is to improve the learning experience of the student and his or her readiness to get on the job market.


A portfolio is basically a collection of artefacts produced by a student during the course of a study which is then presented to the tutor for assessment. Portfolios are a useful way for a student to demonstrate application of knowledge and his or her skillset that has been acquired. A portfolio from a trainee teacher can contain a set of lesson plans that he or she designed and used in the class with the students during a teacher training course. A portfolio is normally accompany by a critical reflection component where the person records his or her feelings, findings, views and reflections through the learning process while building the portfolio.

Moving to alternative modes of assessment and student evaluation should however be done in such a way that the integrity and seriousness of the processes are not compromised. The necessary checks and balances have to be put in place. For example, there is a need to ascertain that authorship of a report is really that of the student. This can be done through putting in place regular meetings to check progress. The use of anti-plagiarism software also helps to establish that a report is a students’ own work and not copied from other sources. Holding viva-voce presentations (oral examinations) at the end of any project or after submissions of portfolios can help establish authenticity and prevent abuses to occur. These should however be done, having in mind, and accepting the fact that examinations in whatever form they take are never foolproof.

As a concluding note, choosing the right model or type of evaluation or assessment instruments depends on what you want to assess, as well as on the subject area being assessed. No assessment method or instrument should be excluded from the beginning. It is also considered a good practice to have a variety of assessment instruments and methods in a curriculum. The idea in not to solely rely on one specific method every time and in every situation.

Wednesday, 22 August 2018

Keynote Speech @ eMerge Africa 2018 - Two decades of eLearning @ the University of Mauritius

I was invited to deliver a keynote speech to the eMerge Africa 2018 conference (also referred to as the festival of eLearning in Africa) which took place as an online event, hosted by the Centre for Innovation in Learning and Teaching, of the University of Cape Town (UCT). This was an excellent opportunity for us to share our own experience in the area as practitioners, researchers and advocates of 21st Century Learning.

The link to the Conference and Keynote Speakers is provided here
The premise of my talk again centered on the reason why the University shifted its strategy from the traditional distance education concept (yes, I find this term to be an oxymoron in the 21st Century, especially in a world dominated by ICTs and virtualization) to the more contemporary concepts of distributed learning and using the “ubiquitous” nature of ICTs and the Internet to transform teaching and learning in the 21st Century. 

The talk provided a timeline of the key events, and strategic shifts from 2001 till now and argues how a transformation of the current education system of the University of Mauritius through ICT leverages will help us to address the present and future challenges in such a way that we ensure the sustainability and relevance of the institution down the years. 

Sunday, 27 May 2018

UNESCO Mobile Learning Week Presentation

The Mobile Learning Week is UNESCO’s flagship ICT in education conference. The Mobile Learning Week 2018 was organized in partnership with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the United Nations specialized agency for ICT. The 2018 event was organized under the theme “Skills for a connected world”. Participants exchanged knowledge about the ways governments and other stakeholders can define and achieve the skills-related targets specified by Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4).

I submitted a proposal for presentation titled “Capacity-building of Educators for 21st Century Skills - Developing agents of change through formal and informal approaches using a 4P Innovation model” which was retained among the 60 selected presentations out of about 300 submissions. The audience to the presentation included Advisors to Minister of Education of the UAE, public and private sector individuals, academics and representatives of NGOs. 
One of the main components of the presentation focused on the BABA-TV project in which the UoM is a partner. The project relates to a mass-literacy initiative over Africa in collaboration with partners from France. The key message delivered in the speech was that much of the focus of the conference was on the education for kids and the youth, but there was a lack of emphasis on the importance of the need to train parents as well. 


Key Ideas

A key idea that emerged there which would be of benefit for Mauritius in achieving SDG4 would be to revamp the idea of the “Ecole des Parents”. In the digital age, this could take the form of webinars, MOOCs and face-to-face meetings in Social Community Centres to help those living in vulnerable situations.

The eKitabu project was another project that captured attention where Kenya is embarking on the digitization of school textbooks, with an intention similar to the one behind the tablet project in Mauritius. An innovative idea in the context of the University based on the eBook concepts, and inspired also from a similar project in UK/Scotland where University professors have embarked on to the publication of low cost e-textbooks on Amazon Kindle surfaced during the discussions, but applied in our context to our OER repository project. One of the forms that the OER repository could take would be as a repository of free e-textbooks published as OER and which could serve either as building blocks to modules that can lead to the accumulation of credits.

One of the main message put forward in the opening of the conference was a new concept – gender equality and the digital divide. It was postulated Gender gap in internet usage is widening. Now the gender issue is getting its way into the use of technology also. Is it a real issue? If yes to what extent? Is it linked to poverty issues again, as a side-effect? There can be room for research here in Mauritius and to compare with global figures.

The Minister of ICT of Egypt talked about the UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for teachers in the plenary session while the Advisor to the Ministry of Education of the UAE talked about the maturity of schools in terms of adopting technology. A key idea here emerged with respect to our ongoing funded project on Education Leadership for the 21st Century by the AAUN, where we could work towards a Leadership Maturity Model for Mauritius Schools in terms of ICTinEd.

Friday, 9 March 2018

Mauritius of tomorrow : Panel discussion on Radio+

I was part of the panel on Radio+ and the debate was centered mainly around Mauritius of the future. I had mainly prepared my intervention to orient it mainly around the role of the University and the importance of education in general to shape the future of this country.

Here is a brief of the main questions on which I intervened and I try to engage into some further reflections in this article.

Question 1 – What is your vision of the future for Mauritius?

After Jugdish Joypaul made a brief intro and painted an overview of the progress of the Country since independence, he asked me that question. My main reflection is that Mauritius is a fast-developing country, and the ingredients that will help us to move from a middle-income country to a high-income economy is there, the blueprint is there and key actions are reflected every year in the budget. But in that quest for development and economic progress, the key reflection I wish that we should make for Mauritius is the following:
  • In our rush and quest for more progress and development, are we not leaving behind key values of humanity, mankind and ensure inclusion?  
  • How come in the Mauritius of the 21st Century we still have families living in extreme poverty?
It is unconceivable for our country and this is our biggest risk for the future. It is high time that we put a pause and reflect on what we have called “living values” at the University. Socio-economic development does not necessary bring more social justice. So the vision of the future in Mauritius, is that there should be no families living under poverty lines in Mauritius.

Question 2 – On the issue of skills mismatch, the role of Universities and the jobs of the future

I brought the discussion along the key reflection question : What is the fundamental role of a University? For me the main role of the University is to prepare individuals for the future. A future, that is uncertain and unexpected, but where one is well-equipped to face. This is where the concepts of 21st Century skills are important, and where Universities have now to rethink of the type of education and pedagogies that they are putting in place. There is a need to ensure that students are able to apply their skills, and become resilient for the future, so that they are able to adapt to changing contexts.

Having said that the role of the University is also to produce manpower who can directly contribute to the needs of the country and the industry. On this aspect the University is capitalizing on schemes such as GTES that has been put in place by the Government. There is a need to balance how Universities deal with the problematic of producing graduates with skills that are immediately applicable for industry, develop individuals with skills to be resilient in the future, and to train people for the jobs of the future.

There is also a problem in the mindset of the youth. They think that when they possess a qualification in a particular sector they have to work at all costs in that area. I took the example of someone who comes out with a management degree, expecting to be recruited as a Manager. I took my own example highlighting my first degree in Physics, with a Masters in IT but I worked in the Education field more precisely ICT in Education. Now as a Pro VC I have a portfolio ranging from Finance, HR, PR and advancement of the University while my main qualifications are in Science & Technology. What is more important is therefore to inculcate skills such as decision making, leadership development, rational thinking and often a dose of common-sense in our students.

The University of Mauritius has always been playing a key role in supporting the development of the country, when we setup the school of Agriculture, then launching the Engineering faculty and the Textile Department, moving into Tourism, Ocean Sciences and finally the setup of the Faculty of Information, Communication and Digital Technologies.

Question 3 – On the issue of the role of Government and the poor to eradicate poverty

While it is the duty of Government to eradicate poverty, special reference here is made to the eradication of extreme poverty, the Government has mainly a role of policy making, and making the money available. However, there is a need to rethink in-depth the role of NGOs and whether they are effective in the fight against poverty. The approach according to me is wrong, as there is no defined process to measure impact and outcomes. NGOs have just become like research institutes where the key is about having the knowledge to write projects to obtain grants. All these money being injected to fight poverty, a country like Mauritius should not have families living in extreme poverty. On the reflection, that whether the onus is not also on the families to make the necessary effort, it is important to know that when a kid is not well fed since his birth, his cognitive and executive functions will not be fully developed in his crucial early years. Therefore poverty becomes a vicious circle for the poor irrespective whether they have the will or not to get out of poverty.

Question 4 – On the issue of brain drain

Mauritius has two key issues to tackle. The first one is ageing of the population and the second one is the issue of brain drain. Well, a lot is being said on brain drain but as Charles Cartier put it, Mauritius is among the rare countries that helps its brain to leave the country and not to come back – the laureate system. I said that although it’s a problem, in such a global world we cannot prevent the youth and other citizens from leaving the country. However we can always work on schemes and incentives to retain our youth. One of the key issues is that technical education is not valued in Mauritius and there is a disparity in the salaries. This is why everyone prefers to go to University – we would all recall the (in)famous one graduate per family policy, which has both its merits and its disadvantages. Hopefully with the polytechnics things will improve, and also with the 9-year schooling, but these remain to be seen.

Wednesday, 28 February 2018

Mauritius as an Education Hub Roundtable - Some Reflections

There were about 10 panelists including 4 Ministers with Australian counterparts on the theme of “Mauritius as an Education Hub”. The meeting was chaired by Raj Makoond and a number of officials from Ministries and Parastatal bodies attended the meeting. First of all this was a nice initiative…on a Sunday !

The different presenters talked about either Government Policies, or institutional strategies that are being put in place to promote Mauritius as an education hub. The Australian counterparts talked about how Universities from Australia and Mauritius could collaborate. One of the talks that impressed me was the one from Mat, the CEO of DUCERE who spoke mainly about disruption in education, highlighting the collaboration of DUCERE with University of Mauritius and laying emphasis on the possibilities for the Mauritius Education Sector to grow and conquer the African market. The Director of TEC also laid emphasis on Quality Education and Quality Assurance and Regulations.

One key question which was not covered and which is a very simple one was -What is an Education Hub? What do we mean when we talk of our country as an Education Hub? Remember Education hub concept in Mauritius has been a fashion frenzy word since 2009 when there was a Ministry looking after Tertiary Education. The concept in fact during the period 2009-2014 caused much harm to Mauritius as a potential education destination.

The second reflection I had was the following (in the form of a question): Can we equate quality in higher education to more strict regulatory frameworks? This brings us back to the TEC, a much disputed institution prior to 2015. However, we must admit that the current Minister and the newly appointed Director Prof Nair have brought some sense of stability and credibility to this institution. Two key questions, intrinsically linked to each other. 
SO what is an education hub? Why would our dear friends from Australia wish that Mauritius becomes an education hub? Will that not compete with them after all? Figures would show us how important the education “industry” is to the US, UK and Australia when it comes to exporting it to other regions as a commodity. Now Asian countries are joining the race – Malaysia, India, and China are all the new big players in the field. Student migration data clearly illustrate the positioning of the Asian countries. However, many of these countries do lack what we have – Bilingualism, our proximity to Africa and our ancestral link with India including other factors such as our political stability, and more and more, our country being now seen as the “Mauritian” dream for many Africans, Indians, and Bangladeshis… who would want to elect our country as a 2nd domicile at all cost. You do get the message, yes. There are risks also out there. The other issue is how do we become this hub? Empower our own institutions ? Can they be up to the level? Are they attractive enough to the international student community? Or do we maintain the trend of getting the big guns in the country to the detriment of our public institutions? This could be a good strategy though if we were to be looking at reducing public spending and creating institutions of average level which often do not contribute enough. Do we then merge the main public institutions in one mega University as France is doing? Strategy and a Grand vision is key here, otherwise our higher education sector can face real issues. Unless as I said, looking at the bigger sphere, might lead us to try to become an Education, Research& Innovation hub all at once, where the legislative framework would require that private foreign institutions have to invest into Research and Innovation programs and not only contend to deliver training and courses, make money and then pull out currency from the country. 
Coming to the second question, this is an area where the Higher Education Bill is very interesting. It separates the QA function from the regulatory process. The regulatory process is linked mainly with the legal framework in place, and ensuring that institutions willing to operate in Mauritius comply with these. Often such processes and due diligence have been equated to quality assurance. Quality Assurance is key to Mauritius becoming that much awaited education hub, and QA has to become the trademark for our Universities. A trademark that has to be preserved and seen to be preserved (reference here to the Quality Assurance Agency to be setup) so that our Universities keep striving for continuous improvement. This has to be their main selling point. Then, instead of competing with each other, they could contemplate the concept of co-opetition where the collaborate while engaging in a healthy competition linked to the pursuit of their own excellence and QA trademark.

Saturday, 9 December 2017

Year 2017 in retro….

The end of 2016 marked a landmark battle to keep the Centre for Innovative & Lifelong Learning intact amidst attempts to integrate it in the newly created Faculty of Information, Communication and Digital Technologies. That was the best of all battles I fought with the management of the University since 2014 when CILL was established. 

The year 2017 however was the year of a complete turn-around when I was appointed as Pro VC (Planning & Resources), an appointment which came as a big surprise and completely unexpected. Although I never doubted in my own ability to take up this challenge, the aim behind me sending an application was completely different. I recall my good friend telling me "if you get interview, then it’s a chance to go and tell them what we do at CILL, and what is our vision of a university for the future”. This is what we did and we convinced them it seems…..

April 2017 – when I took over office I kept thinking why there were only two applications for this post, when many of us at this institution were certainly eligible. One thing that I realized though, the challenge was huge, but my previous experience in management and leading CILL and ex-VCILT for 8 years had given me something, which I even did not realize that I had. I knew in fact a lot about how the university functions, and I always used to say – ‘to change the system, you need to be in the system”.

I used to be a rebel thinker and a constant challenger of the traditional ways of doing things (i am still one) which had started to turn the university in a archaic system. I  practically became a non-conformist. I had a different perspective of what the University should be and how it should operate for the 21st Century. I still have one which is quite different from the current reorientation but its worth saying  there are many similarities. I had started to develop my own ideology and philosophy of organisational culture and values that would transform the institution into a better institution, according to me. So now I had become empowered at a higher level to do a number of things that I could not do at the lower level. Of course, I still have a boss (VC) and another colleague Pro VC to convince, but so far so good on a number of things for which I am given the latitude to act.

So what has been achieved in 2017? I will summarize mainly in bullet points covering the most urgent ones, which were pending since more than 3 years and which have been facilitated under my responsibility this year –

  • Decrease in postgraduate fees overall at the university to position the University as a preferred destination for both local and foreign students.
  • Approval of the University Technology-Enabled Learning Policy that remained stagnant since 2015.
  • Establishment of a framework for the University to engage in the Graduate Training Employment Scheme. 
  • Approval of the Internationalisation Strategy for the University to ensure the visibility of the University outside Mauritius (supposed to be approved in 2015).

These four key elements above will hopefully set a solid foundation to ensure the digital transformation of the University as well as ensuring the long-term sustainability of the institution. 

The focus for 2018 will now be as follows:
  • Transforming UoM in a value-driven organisation and developing a values-led culture among employees.
  • Development of an Open Educational Resources Platform for free dissemination of knowledge and content on a national and regional level.
  • Implementation of the technology-enabled policy and upgrade of the eLearning Infrastructure.
  • Capacity-building to train techno-preneurs through the BSc Digital Innovation and Enterprise which is based on a unique innovative pedagogical model.

Friday, 6 October 2017

UoM eLearning Africa 2017 Participation

The University of Mauritius conducted a one-day pre-conference workshop on Wednesday 27th September on Interactive Materials Development using a version of the Rapid eLearning Method conceived by CILL. 32 participants were registered and 19 were present for the workshop. Participants came from a variety of countries over Africa including the US and Europe. Among the participants were a Pro-Chancellor of a University in Nigeria, CEOs of NGOs, academics of Universities and technical support staff from institutions in the African Education Sector. Dr Santally, Pro Vice-Chancellor participated in the Core Dialog session on Thursday 28th September on Foresights and Trends in Higher Education where he made a presentation alongside another speaker from UK. A summary of the session is as follows:
The traditional model of education has been disrupted by a variety of factors, including globalization, the Internet, budget cuts and increased competition from the private sector. What does the future hold in store for us? Using ‘foresight tools’, this session will examine a range of probable, possible and preferable futures. It will also discuss emerging technologies and new trends in eLearning, assessing their potential impact on African education.
The title of the talk was “Trends, Challenges and Scenarios for Higher Education Institutions: Case Study of the University of Mauritius”. That was a very rich session in insights and questions/comments from the attendees. He was also part of the panel discussion on “ICT in Higher Education and Research in Africa” and in another UNESCO panel titled “Follow-up to the 2nd World OER Congress: Moving OER into Policy and Action in the Indian Ocean Commission Members”. He made a presentation on research work undertaken at the University in OER. Specialists from UNESCO (Mr Joe Hironaka), and Prof Daniel Burgos, Deputy VC Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR), Spain and Sophie Touze from the Open Education Consortium, USA. The key challenge is how to build sustainable educational model around Open Educational Resources.

Mr Halkhoree, Director CITS was also part of a panel of technology in education where he covered the historical evolution of ICTs at the University of Mauritius. The session was titled “How Context Differs across Africa and How It Affects Higher Education”

A summary of the session is as follows:
The local context affects both education in general and the development of eLearning in particular in every African country. Each country faces its own set of difficulties and challenges. Each one has developed different initiatives to add value, as they set about implementing new schemes. In every African country, however, partnership and collaboration are important keys to success. With case studies from Morocco, Mozambique, Sudan, Eritrea and Sierra Leone, this session looks at how collaboration – between institutions, with the private sector or with the Government – has been an important part of implementation in widely differing contexts.
Mrs Sandhya Gunness from CILL also participated in a panel along high profile panelists from our parent Ministry and foreign panelists. The title of the session was “Education in Schools in Context”.
A summary of the session is as follows:
How is the implementation of education policy affected by the local context? Presenters at this session will examine the experience of Zambia, Uganda, Mauritius and Malawi to assess how teachers, planners and administrators are responding to some challenging problems. The session will consider several case studies, giving participants an opportunity to gain insights into the implementation of ICTs in schools, the provision of support for children with learning difficulties, the use of blended learning to support teacher training and the need for increased integration of digital literacy, leadership and awareness of policy goals.
The local and international panelists were overall high profile, and the sessions were very rich in terms of quality exchanges especially when they were held in small breakout rooms. eLearning Africa 2017 provided excellent networking opportunities and avenues for initiating collaborations both at individual researcher and institutional levels. Another positive element for Mauritius is that the local researchers in the related fields from different institutions were retained among the speakers of the event.